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William I was a Stadtholder (Dutch for Steward) It is comparable with the French title Lieutenant, England’s fifteenth century Lord Lieutenant with the Italian title of Doge.

Henrietta Maria was Princess of France and Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland through her marriage to Charles I. She was the mother of two kings, Charles II and James II, and was grandmother to Mary II, William III, and Anne of Great Britain. She was also, through her daughter Henrietta, Duchess of Orléans, the ancestor of Louis XV, Louis XVI, Louis XVII, Louis XVIII & Charles X. Through the illegitimate children of Charles II, she is a direct ancestor of Princess Diana , Prince William and Prince Harry.

William II was a Stadtholder of the the United Provinces of the Netherlands On May 2, 1641 William married Mary Henrietta Stuart, the Princess Royal, the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England and Queen Henrietta Maria in the Chapel Royal, Whitehall Palace, London.

Mary, Princess Royal’s ancestors were

Father: Charles I of England

Paternal Grandfather: James I of England

Paternal Great-grandfather: Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley

Paternal Great-grandmother: Mary I of Scotland

Paternal Grandmother: Anne of Denmark

Paternal Great-grandfather: Frederick II of Denmark

Paternal Great-grandmother: Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow

Mother: Henrietta Maria of France

Maternal Grandfather: Henry IV of France

Maternal Great-grandfather: Antoine de Bourbon

Maternal Great-grandmother: Jeanne III of Navarre

Maternal Grandmother: Marie de’ Medici

Maternal Great-grandfather: Francesco I de’ Medici

Maternal Great-grandmother: Johanna of Austria

William III of England and Mary II of England

Co-regents 1689-95

Upon the death of Charles II in 1685, the Duke of York became King as James II in England and Ireland (and as James VII in Scotland). He had a controversial religious policy and the King James Bible;

On 30 June, the Immortal Seven secretly requested William—then in the Netherlands with Mary—to come to England with an army. At first, William was reluctant; he was jealous of his wife’s position as the heiress to the English Crown and feared that she would become more powerful than he was. Mary, however, convinced her husband that she did not care for political power, telling him "she would be no more but his wife, and that she would do all that lay in her power to make him King for life". William agreed to invade and issued a declaration which referred to James’ newborn son as the "pretended Prince of Wales". He also gave a list of grievances of the English people and stated that his proposed expedition was for the sole purpose of having "a free and lawful Parliament assembled". The Dutch army finally landed on 5 November, having been turned back by a storm in October. The disaffected English Army and Navy went over to William, and English people’s confidence in James stood so low that they did not attempt to save their King. On 11 December, the defeated King attempted to flee, but was intercepted. A second attempt at flight, on 23 December, was successful: James escaped to France where he lived in exile until his death.

Mary was upset by the circumstances surrounding the deposition of her father, but William ordered her to appear cheerful on their triumphant arrival in London. As a result, she was criticised for appearing cold to her father’s plight. James, too, wrote a diatribe against her criticising her disloyalty, an action which deeply affected the pious Mary.

The invasion marked the final defeat of England in the Anglo-Dutch Wars of the 17th century. However, the personal union, the common market and the merging of the English and Dutch navies shifted the dominance in world trade from the Netherlands to England (and then the United Kingdom of Great Britain). Although most in England accepted William as Sovereign, he faced considerable opposition in Scotland and Ireland. The Scottish Jacobites—those who believed that James VII was the legitimate monarch—won a stunning victory on 27 July 1689 at the Battle of Killiecrankie, but were nevertheless subdued within a month. William’s reputation suffered following the Massacre of Glencoe (1692), in which 78 Highland Scots were murdered or died of exposure for not properly pledging their allegiance to the new King and Queen. Bowing to public opinion, William dismissed those responsible for the massacre, though they still remained in his favour; in the words of the historian John Dalberg-Acton, "one became a colonel, another a knight, a third a peer and a fourth an earl."

Whilst William was away fighting, his wife, Mary II, governed the realm, but acted on his advice. Each time he returned to England, Mary gave up her power to him without reservation, an arrangement that lasted for the rest of Mary’s life. William endowed the College of William and Mary (in present day Williamsburg, Virginia) in 1693. Nassau, the capital of The Bahamas, is named after Fort Nassau, which was renamed in 1695 in his honor. Similarly Nassau County, New York a county on Long Island, is a namesake. Long Island itself was also known as Nassau during early Dutch rule. Though many alumni of Princeton University think that Princeton, N.J. (and hence the university) was named in his honor, this is probably untrue. Nassau Hall, at the university campus, is so named, however.

The modern day Orange Institution is named after William III, and makes a point of celebrating his victory at the Boyne. New York City was briefly renamed New Orange for him in 1673 after the Dutch recaptured the city, which had been renamed New York by the British in 1665. His name was applied to the fort and administrative center for the city on two separate occasions reflecting his different sovereign status—first as Fort Willem Hendrick in 1673, and then as Fort William in 1691 when the English evicted Colonists who had seized the fort and city.

William and Mary (the Adam and Eve of Virginia)

William Randolph (1650– 1711) was a colonist and land owner who played an important role in the history and government of the Commonwealth of Virginia. He moved to Virginia sometime between 1669 and 1673, and married Mary Isham (1652–December 29*, 1735) a few years later. His descendants included several prominent political figures, including Thomas Jefferson and John Marshall. Genealogists have taken an interest in him for his progeny’s many marital alliances, referring to him and Mary Isham as "the Adam and Eve of Virginia".

*The same day Mary II supposable died in 1694 at the age of 32.

The Randolphs were established gentry, in England, meaning that they had property and a family tradition of knightly military service signified by a coat of arms. Although the family can be directly traced back only as far as 1500, the name appears in the Doomsday Book and there is a distinguished Scottish family with which they may have been connected. There is better evidence that they were descended from Surety Barons of Magna Carta through a female line. The historian David Hackett Fisher shows a chart illustrating gentry intermarriages in which the Randolphs and Ishams figure. Although there is no record of William’s attending a university, his half-uncle Thomas Randolph was an Oxford don and noted poet.

After his arrival in Virginia, Randolph began working as an "undertaker" (building contractor), before turning to tobacco farming. Even after he had acquired property, a tax roll refers to him as "William Randolph, Merchant". At some point he owned a ship which travelled between Bristol, England and his dock at Turkey Island. Randolph held multiple official appointments. At the local level, he became clerk of Henrico County Court in 1673 and held the position until he was asked to serve as a justice of the peace in 1683. He also served as sheriff and coroner.

In addition, Randolph represented Henrico County in every assembly of the House of Burgesses from 1684 to 1698, was the Speaker of the House of Burgesses in 1698, and was the Clerk of the House from 1699 to 1702. He fell ill in August of 1702 and his son, William, took his place. Randolph resigned the clerkship completely in March of 1703.

Randolph was also one of the founders and first trustees of the College of William and Mary. His son, John Randolph, was awarded a knighthood on a trip to London to secure a royal charter for the College.

Randolph was a friend of William Byrd and served as an advisor to Byrd’s sons during their political careers. He is mentioned in one of Byrd’s diaries without the supercilious tone Byrd employed with most of his contemporaries, no small character reference. Byrd also describes a visit to Tuckahoe Plantation around 1733.

He built a mansion on the Turkey Island plantation on high ground overlooking the island and the river. It featured a ribbed dome and was known as the "Bird’s Cage

Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743 into a family closely related to some of the most prominent individuals in Virginia, the third of eight children. His mother was Jane Randolph, daughter of Isham Randolph, a ship’s captain and sometime planter, first cousin to Peyton Randolph, and granddaughter of wealthy English gentry. Jefferson’s father was Peter Jefferson, a planter and surveyor in Albemarle County(Shadwell, then Edge Hill, Virginia.) He was of Welsh descent. When Colonel William Randolph, an old friend of Peter Jefferson, died in 1745, Peter assumed executorship and personal charge of William Randolph’s estate in Tuckahoe as well as his infant son, Thomas Mann Randolph

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